Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea) internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging.

Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea) internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging.

BACKGROUNDTraditional comparative morphological analyses and subsequent three-dimensional reconstructions undergo from a quantity of drawbacks. This is especially evident within the case of mushy tissue research which can be technically demanding, time-consuming, and typically inclined to supply artefacts.

These issues can partly be overcome by using non-invasive, destruction-free imaging strategies, specifically micro-computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.RESULTSHere, we employed high-field magnetic resonance imaging strategies to collect quite a few information from members of a main marine invertebrate taxon, the sea urchins (Echinoidea).

For this mannequin examine, 13 of the 14 at the moment acknowledged high-ranking subtaxa (orders) of this group of animals have been analyzed. Based on the acquired datasets, interactive three-dimensional fashions have been assembled. Our analyses reveal that chosen mushy tissue characters may even be used for phylogenetic inferences in sea urchins, as exemplified by variations within the dimension and form of the gastric caecum discovered within the Irregularia.

CONCLUSIONSThe important focus of our investigation was to discover the likelihood to systematically visualize the internal anatomy of echinoids obtained from numerous museum collections.

Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea) internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging.
Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea) internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging.

We present that, in distinction to classical preparative procedures, magnetic resonance imaging may give fast, destruction-free entry to morphological information from quite a few specimens, thus extending the vary of strategies obtainable for comparative research of invertebrate morphology.

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